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The Climate of Peru Varies, From Tropical in the Mountains to Arctic in the Highest Mountains of the Andes. Average Temperatures Decrease About 1.7 Celsius Degrees (About 3 Fahrenheit Degrees) With Every 450-m (1,500-ft) Increases in Elevation. Permanent Snow and Ice Fields Cover Peaks More Than 5,000 m (16,500 ft.) Above Sea Level, and the Highest Elevation at Which the Land is Suitable for Agriculture is About 4,400 m (14,500 ft.).

In the Coastal Plain, the Temperature is Normally Mild, Averaging About 20° C (About 68° F) Throughout the Year. The Coastal Climate is Moderated by Winds Blowing From the Cool Offshore Current Known as the Peruvian Humboldt Stream. The Coast Receives Less Than 50 mm (Less Than 2inch) of Precipitation Each Year, Because the Mountain Range Receives Most of the Rain Carried by the Trade Winds From the East. Mist-laden Clouds Known as Garúa.Many of the Slopes of the Highlands, Provide Enough Moisture to Support Grasslands From June to October.

In the Highlands, the Temperature ChangesFrequently From About -7° to 21° C (About 20° to 70° F). Rainfall is Usually Limited, But in Some Places Heavy Rains Fall From October to April. In Cusco, in the Southeastern Highlands, the Annual Rainfall Averages from 815 mm (Some 32 Inch). The Exposed Eastern Slopes of the Andes Receive More Than 2,500 mm (100 Inch) of Rain Every Year, but Sheltered Locations Receive Much Less. Rainfall Amounts Diminish Rapidly Southward, Causing Many Changes in the Vegetation.

The Mountain Region is Extremely Hot and Humid, Although at Higher Altitudes it is Less Hot. The Prevailing Easterly Winds Blowing Across That Region Gather Moisture That is Later is Deposit on the Eastern Andean Slopes. Annual Rainfall in Some Districts Average as Much as 3,810 mm (as Much as 150 Inch). Most of This Rain, Which Principally Falls From November Through April, Goes Back to the Mountain.

Peru’s Climate Periodically Experiences a Weather Pattern Known as El Niño. El Niño Occurs Every Three to Seven Years When Unusually Warm Ocean Conditions Appear Along the Western Coast. During El Niño theHumid Weather Conditions Normally are Present in the Western Pacific Moving to the East, Bringing Heavy Rains That Can Cause Extensive Flooding.





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